Elevator Controller Guide

What Is an Elevator Controller?

An elevator controller is the central hub of an elevator that handles multiple tasks, like the elevator’s movement, speed, opening the elevator’s door, bells and light displays. Basically, an elevator controller is the brain of an elevator. When you click a button to give a command to the elevator, it receives signals and sends them to the specific operational part to give you the result. For example, if you click the button to open the elevator door, the controller will receive your signals and send them to the specific elevator’s operational part to open the door. As a result, the elevator door will be opened.

Where Is The Elevator Controller Located?

The elevator controller is usually located in the elevator machine room. And the roomless elevator has a controller in the shaft. Both of these different types of controllers have different structures. Moreover, controllers for elevators without machine rooms cost more than those for elevators with machine rooms.

Elevator Controller Functions

The primary function of elevator controllers is to receive signals from different elevator components and operate accordingly. It also sends signals to different elevator parts for operation. As a result, this exchange of signals allows an elevator controller to accomplish multiple tasks. All of these functions of the elevator controller are mentioned below:

Elevator Speed Control: An elevator controller controls the elevator speed. It accomplishes this task after receiving signals from the elevator engine.

Floor Reqrues Queues: When passengers click buttons to go on a specific floor. The elevator controller enables the elevator to operate accordingly by taking floor request signals from the button.

Weight Balance: In case the weight limit is increased in the elevator cab, the controller receives signals from the load sensor and operates to inform passengers about the weight limit increase.

Alarming Situation Management: It gives signals to alarm bells to ring if there is an emergency in the elevator cab.

Opening & Closing Elevator Door: An elevator controller manages the door operation by interacting with a door-opening device.

Inform the Passengers: It informs the passengers inside the elevator about the current floor by interacting with the location display.

Different Types of Elevator Control System

There are four types of an elevator controller. These four types are explained in detail below:

Selective Collective Operation

Selective collective operation is used in commercial buildings. It enables different passengers available in the same elevator cab to reach different floors timely. For example, if there are 2 passengers in the elevator, one needs to go to floor 3, and press button 3. And the other wants to go to floor six and clicks the 6-floor button. The elevator will reach both of you to your respective floors one by one. This procedure is called selective collective operation.

Constant Pressure

Putting pressure on the button until you reach your desired location is called constant pressure. In case you remove pressure on the button, the lift will stop or might change its direction. As a result, you won’t reach your location. The constant pressure controller is normally used for wheelchair lifts.

Nonselective Collective

A non-selective collective controller is considered a residential elevator. It operates each command in a sequential manner. For example, if there are 3 passengers in an elevator press the elevator button for different floors, such as 2, 6, and 3. The nonselective collective controller will go to each floor following the order of command it received.

Single Automatic

A single automatic controller is free from collective operation. It’s normally used in material lift applications. Once a single automatic elevator receives a command, it will start operating. You can’t give it the next command until it has accomplished the first command task. After completing the first command, it waits for the second command.

Components of the Elevator Controller

The elevator controller has two components: input and output. Both of these components play their roles in the elevator control system.

Input Component

Input components include sensors, buttons, key controls, and system controls.

Sensor: Infrared, weight sensor, and PVT (primary velocity transducer) are the sensors of input components of the elevator controller. The infrared detects the people who enter and leave the elevator. The weight season informs the elevator controller in case the load is exceeded in it. The PVT sensor informs the controller of how fast the drive shave is moving.

Buttons: Multiple types of buttons are included in the input components of elevator controllers: hall buttons, floor request buttons, an open door button, an emergency stop button, an emergency bell button, and a registration panel. Each button is located at a specific place in the elevator. When someone presses a button, the controller receives the signals and proceeds to get the required job done.

Key Controls: Key controls are operated using proper keys. Only firemen, elevator operators, and repair people can use key controls. The primary purpose of key controls is to restrict elevator access to a specific floor. The controller performs the task by receiving signals from the switch when it is set to AUTO or HOLD. AUTO is for regular use, and HOLD stops the elevator from moving or opening its doors.

System Controls: System control is the switch on and off system of an elevator. It means it turns on and off the elevator. The system control system is set up in the elevator control room so you can access it there.

Output Devices

Actuators, bells, and displays are the output components of an elevator controller.

Actuators: Actuators are based on door-opening devices, electric motors, and brakes. Each elevator cab has a door-opening device that opens and closes the elevator’s door. The controller sends signals to the door-opening device to close and open the door. The electric motor lifts up and down by receiving signals from the controller about which speed and direction it needs to move the cab.

Bells: Two types of bells are included in output devices: emergency bell and load bell. An emergency bell is located in the elevator system. It rings to alert people that something happened in the elevator cab. The load bell warns the people inside the elevator that there is too much weight in the elevator cab. Both emergency and load bells work after receiving signals from the elevator controller.

Displays: Car position and direction displays are included in elevator controllers. A car position display is set at the inside of each elevator. It shows the passengers on which floor the elevator is currently is. A direction display is also located at the inside of an elevator. Both car position and direction displays operate after receiving signals from the elevator controller.


Can elevator controllers handle emergencies?
Yes, elevator controllers handle emergencies. Modern elevator controllers are equipped with various safety features and protocols to respond to emergencies such as power outages, mechanical failures, or entrapments.

Do elevator controllers save energy?
Yes, elevator controllers contribute to saving energy. It keeps the elevator operation smooth and fast. When the elevator works properly and swiftly, it takes less time, saving energy.

Can elevator controllers be upgraded or replaced?
Yes, elevator controllers can be upgraded or replaced to improve performance, enhance safety, meet modern regulations, or incorporate new technology.


An elevator controller handles multiple tasks, such as traffic system, interactive command, and visual monitoring of an elevator. It works using different elevator input and output components, like buttons, sensors, displays, bells, Actuators, key controls, etc. So, if you desire to install a high-quality and advanced technology-based controller in your traction elevator, Dazen will be a great platform. It offers top-notch elevator controllers at affordable prices.

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